The Savillex C400 nebulizers combine the reliability of a low flow glass concentric nebulizer with the chemical resistance and low elemental background of a PFA concentric nebulizer.
The C400d PFA concentric nebulizer is specifically optimised for ICP-MS and combines the reliability of a low flow glass concentric nebulizer with the chemical resistance and low elemental background of a PFA concentric nebulizer. In addition, its unique constant diameter capillary and removable uptake line with zero dead volume connector give the C400d excellent resistance to clogging and extremely fast washout.
The C400e is identical to the C400d above - it has the same performance and is used for the same applications - except that, in place of a zero dead volume connector and sample uptake line, it has an ESI type thread for direct connection to the ESI FAST system.
While microconcentric (uptake rate 200uL/min or less) PFA nebulizers are used as standard with ICP-MS for semiconductor applications, most non-semiconductor ICP-MS labs use low flow glass nebulizers due to their more suitable uptake rate and relatively low cost. The Savillex C400 nebulizers were designed specifically for non-semiconductor ICP-MS use and while it can free aspirate, it is designed to be pumped and is optimized for the typical uptake rates (350-400uL/min) of today’s ICP-MS systems.
The C400 nebulizers are also extremely resistant to clogging by particulates: inside the nebulizer body, a constant ID capillary avoids the changes in ID that cause potential blockage points. And because the capillary is supported at the tip, the C400 can be easily and safely backflushed – without the need for tools. The C400 is capable of handling over 15% total dissolved solids (TDS). Finally, time savings in manufacturing compared with microconcentric versions have enabled us to offer the C400 at a price similar to low flow glass nebulizers.
Moulded from high purity virgin PFA, the C400 offers the chemical resistance and low metal background of a conventional PFA nebulizer, but with several unique features. Its two-piece precision moulded design allows precise optimization of back pressure during manufacture, ensuring consistently high performance. It also features an inner body that supports the capillary all the way to the tip, making it more robust and giving it a longer lifetime compared to other PFA nebulizers. The C400 is optimized for use at 1SLPM to match the carrier gas flow rates of all common ICP-MS, and it’s 6mm OD body fits all common spray chamber end caps. An 80cm long uptake line is included with the C400d.
The removable sample uptake line of the C400d connects to the body using Savillex’s unique zero dead volume connector for reliable, reproducible connections and the fastest possible washout. A threaded PFA gas inlet fitting ensures a reliable, leak-free carrier gas connection and includes a range of adapters to connect to common gas line sizes.
The microconcentric version C-Flows all feature an integrated uptake line since they are designed to be used in free aspiration mode. The C400d, because it is designed to be pumped, features a removable uptake line for greater flexibility in application. A common problem with nebulizer uptake line connectors is dead volume caused by small voids, leading to increased washout and memory problems. Poor reproducibility of alignment following disconnection and reconnection can also be a problem. Rather than use a commercially available fitting, we designed the ultimate zero dead volume connector for the C400d (see drawings). The uptake line is secured to the nebulizer body by a threaded connector, which is captive on the uptake line.
C400d showing uptake line connected and disconnected
A PFA fitting, which is bonded to the uptake line, locates into a PFA ring on the back of the nebulizer body. This ensures that the of the uptake line and capillary inside the nebulizer body are precisely aligned every time. The mating faces of the connector are smooth and perfectly flat, eliminating voids that could cause washout or memory issues. All components are PFA. The uptake line ID and the capillary ID inside the nebulizer body are both 0.3mm, resulting in a constant ID flow path from sample to nebulizer tip. This ensures exceptional resistance to blockages.
C400d connector – close up showing locating ring (brown)
The ESI FAST discrete sampling system is used to improve sample throughput in ICP-MS and features an injection valve close coupled to the nebulizer by a low dead volume tee connector with ISTD line. The C400e features an ESI type thread on the nebulizer body, which allows direct connection to the ESI tee connector. Thus the C400e is a direct replacement for the ESI ST nebulizer on FAST systems and enables ESI FAST users to take advantage of the benefits of the C-Flow nebulizer.
C400e Showing ESI Thread for Connection to FAST Connector Line
Along with the C700d nebulizer for ICP-OES, the C400 makes up Savillex’s d-type (removable uptake line) nebulizer range. Like all Savillex nebulizers, d-type nebulizers are designed, moulded and assembled by Savillex, and the design of the d-type range has enabled a significant reduction in assembly time and subsequent cost reductions. As a result, Savillex d-type nebulizers offer all the benefits of PFA nebulizers and more - all at a price comparable to low flow glass nebulizers.
Combining high performance and ruggedness with fast washout, high matrix tolerance, chemical inertness and long lifetime, at an excellent price point, the C400 is the perfect choice for routine, non-semiconductor ICP-MS applications.
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